Measles / rubeola
What do you mean by measles / rubeola ?
An acute highly infectious disease of childhood caused by a specific virus of the group myxoviruses. It is clinically characterized by fever and catarrhal of the upper respiratory tract (coryza, cough), followed by typical rash.
Measles (also known as rubeola and "10-day", "hard" and "red" measles) is a serious disease that causes fever, rash, and other complications. Measles is a highly contagious infection of the respiratory system. Do not confuse this illness with rubella which is sometimes called 'German' or '3-day' measles. Measles is caused by a virus.
History of Measles / Rubeola
The word rubeola means red spots. The earliest description of measles was given by the noted Arab physician, Abu Bacr known to the west as Rhazes Panum did classical studies on the epidemiology of measles in 1846. In 1954, measles virus was isolated by Enders and his colleagues in U.S.A . In 1958,Measles vaccine was first used in a clinical trial and in 1963, live measles vaccine was licensed for use.
Causes of Measles / Rubeola
Its specific cause is not known. Generally, it is an epidemic disease, and attack children. When adults are attacked they suffer pretty severely. It occurs 9 to 14 days after a child is exposed to another child with measles. The period which elapses between the introduction of the poison into the system and the invasion of the disease varies from 7 to 14 days.
Transmission of disease
Transmission occurs directly from person to person mainly by droplet infection and droplet nuclei, from 4 days before onset of until 5 days thereafter . The portal of entry is the respiratory tract. Infection through conjunctiva is also considered likely as the virus instilled into the conjunctiva can cause infection. recipients of measles vaccine are not contagious to others.
Incubation period is commonly 10 days from exposure to onset of fever and 14 days to appearance of rash. when measles infection is artificially induced by passing the respiratory tract ( as with injection of live measles vaccine ), the incubation period is somewhat shortened averaging in 7 days.
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF MEASLES / Rubeola
One special identifying sign of measles is Koplik's spots. These are small, red, irregularly-shaped spots with blue-white centers found inside the mouth. Koplik's spots usually appear 1 to 2 days before the measles rash and may be noticed by a doctor looking for the cause of a child's fever and cough.
Measles symptoms usually show up in two stages.
Diagnosis of Measles / Rubeola
A detailed history should be taken including course of the disease so far, vaccination history, contact history and travel history. Observation of Koplik's spots is also diagnostic of measles. Measles can usually be diagnosed by symptoms. A blood test can confirm the diagnosis. There are laboratory tests, but these would seldom be of any practical use. The diagnosis would normally be incorrect in any febrile exhanthem in which red eyes and cough are absent. In developed countries where measles are uncommon specific IgM antibodies are being used for diagnosis.
Complication result from Measles / Rubeola :-
Measles is to often regarded as an unimportant infection, but this is not true. The most common complications are measles- associated diarrhea, pneumonia, and other respiratory complications and otitis media. Pneumonia occurs in up to 6 percent of reported cases and amounts for 60 percent of deaths attributed to measles.
The more serious are the neurological complications which include febrile convulsions, encephalitis and sub acute sclerosing pan encephalitis ( SSPE ). Sub acute SSPE is a rare complication which develops many years after the initial measles infection. It is characterised by progressive mental deterioration leading to paralyses, probably due to presistence of the virus in the brain. The diagnosis of SSPE may be made early by the demonstration of high level of measles compliment fixing anti bodies in CSF and Serum. Other complications include middle ear infections and convulsions (seizures). Encephalitis is another serious complication. The fatality rate from measles for otherwise healthy people in developed countries is low: approximately 1 death per thousand cases. In underdeveloped nations with high rates of malnutrition and poor healthcare, fatality rates of 10 percent are common.
Prevention of Measles / Rubeola :-
Maintaining the highest level of immunization against measles is the best preventive measure. Previously there was a vaccination for measles, given early in the second year of life, in the UK . There is now a vaccine, which, in the UK , is given at 12 to 15 months, along with vaccines for mumps and German measles. A booster is given before starting school. This vaccine is known as MMR . The vaccine is highly effective and one injection usually produces lifelong immunity.
When to call a doctor?
Treatment / Home Remedies of Measles / Rubeola :-
There is no specific treatment for uncomplicated measles. Patients with uncomplicated measles will recover with rest and supportive treatment. The health-care provider can confirm the diagnosis and provide home-care instructions to relieve the discomfort of the symptoms. Persons with suppressed immune systems should not be given measles virus vaccine. This would include persons with leukemia, lymphoma, generalized cancer, or therapy with certain cancer treatment drugs, radiation, or large doses of steroids. A physician should be consulted before a patient who may be immunosuppressed is given measles vaccine. Take your child's temperature at least once each morning and each evening, and keep a record However, a person who has contact with or lives in a household with an immunosuppressed person may be given measles vaccine as usual. If fever goes above 103 degrees Fahrenheit (39.4 degrees Celsius) bring it down using nonaspirin fever medications such as acetaminophen. Encourage your child to drink clear fluids: water, fruit juice, tea, and lemonade. If immediate protection against measles is required for persons who should not get measles vaccination, immune globulin or IG should be given as soon as possible after the exposure to measles. Use a cool-mist vaporizer to relieve cough and to soothe breathing passages. Children with measles should not read or watch television while their eyes are sensitive to light. As light has a detrimental effect upon the eyes during measles, the room should have subdued light.
Home Remedies of Measles / Rubeola :-
General home care:-
Home || Feedback ||
(c)Copyright Free-Health-care.com. All rights reserved
|Disclaimer : All information on free-health-care.com is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, please consult your qualified health care provider. We will not be liable for any complications, or other medical accidents arising from the use of any information on this web site.|