Amenorrhea Secondary : Types, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, Prevention, General Home Care of Amenorrhea Secondary
Amenorrhea is the name given to the condition when a woman fails to have menstrual periods. The condition is known as "primary amenorrhea" when the woman has never menstruated; and "secondary amenorrhea" if her periods cease after having been regular for months or years
Types Of A menorrhea :
It occurs when a woman has not had her first menstrual period (menarche) by age 16. Primary amenorrhea is also called "delayed menarche," it is most often due to late puberty, which is fairly common in teenage girls who are very thin or very athletic. In other girls, the delay of menstruation may be due to Turner's syndrome, a genetic disorder involving the sex chromosomes, or to abnormal female reproductive organs.
It happens when a woman who has menstruated previously fails to menstruate for three months. This type of amenorrhea can be caused by:
Menopause, the normal age-related end of menstruation
Surgical removal of the uterus
Stopping birth control pills
Tumors of the pituitary gland
Emotional or physical stress
Rapid weight loss
Frequent strenuous exercise
Chronic (long-term) illness, such as colitis, kidney failure or cystic fibrosis
Chemotherapy for cancer
Cysts or tumors in the ovaries
Symptoms of Amenorrhea Secondary
Amenorrhea means the absence of or the suppression of menses. It is a condition in which there is suspension or temporary cessation of the discharge after it has been regularly established. This may be sudden in its onset, violent and accidental suppression or it may come on in gradual manner. The more sudden the suppression, the more violent and severe will be the resulting symptoms. The consequence of sudden suppression may be severe spasmodic pains in the stomach and bowels, often attended with retching to vomit, fever, headache, flushed face, wild delirium, convulsions, hysteria, palpitation of the heart, difficulty of breathing, etc. When the suspension of the discharge is gradual, or arises from causes operating in the interval, the evil consequences will not appear so suddenly. The lady will become pale, languid and. debilitated; loses her appetite and ambition; looks sickly and dejected; feet and ankles swell; nervous symptoms set in; palpitation of the heart; shortness of breath; and in persons predisposed to consumption that disease is most sure to follow.
Causes of Amenorrhea Secondary
There are many causes which may result in the suppression of menses. Exposure to cold and damp, getting feet wet and sitting on damp floor are most common causes of this obstruction. It may also be due to sudden and powerful mental emotions and grief. Diseases of the chest, liver and of the organs directly concerned may also give rise to suppression. Besides this there may be other causes like sedentary and indolent life of luxury with no exercise, "excessive sexual indulgence, mechanical obstruction, tight clothes obstructing flow of blood, excessive hemorrhage, catching sudden chill and any acute or chronic disease.
Diagnosis of Amonorrhea
Diagnosis begins with a gynecologist evaluating a female's medical history and a complete physical examination including a pelvic examination. A diagnosis of amenorrhea can only be certain when the physician rules out other menstrual disorders, medical conditions, or medications that may be causing or aggravating the condition. In addition, a diagnosis of amenorrhea requires that a female has missed at least three consecutive menstrual cycles, without being pregnant. Young women who have not had their first menstrual period by the age of 16 should be evaluated promptly, as making an early diagnosis and starting treatment as soon as possible is very important.
Treatment of Amenorrhea Secondary
Your physician may prescribe various types of hormones to see whether your ovaries are functioning normally.
Provided no underlying disorder is causing the amenorrhea, treatment is generally unnecessary. However, because women who are not menstruating seem susceptible to osteoporosis, your physician may suggest that you take estrogen and a calcium supplement.
If an underlying disorder is to blame for either primary or secondary amenorrhea, the treatment will depend on the nature of the disorder
Prevention of Amenorrhea Secondary
In many cases, teenage girls can help to prevent primary amenorrhea by following a sensible exercise program and by maintaining a normal weight for their height and age. Primary amenorrhea caused by anatomic abnormalities of the reproductive tract cannot be prevented.
Secondary amenorrhea that is related to diet, over-exercise or stress, can be treated by following simple steps:
Eat a low-fat diet that meets your recommended daily nutritional needs.
Exercise moderately, but not excessively, to maintain an ideal body weight and muscle tone.
Find healthy outlets for emotional stress and daily conflicts.
Balance work, recreation and rest.
General Home Care of Amenorrhea Secondary
Amenorrhea in itself causes no problems except that it means a woman cannot get pregnant while it lasts.
If there is some underlying disorder that needs to be treated, periods will usually return with restored health.
If spotting happens at the time when normally menstrual period is expected, patient could possibly be pregnant.
Avoid tea, coffee and alcohol, eat lots of raw vegetables and take moderate exercise regularly.
CALL THE DOCTOR
If there is no ill health or pregnancy and periods have not returned after two to three months, consult your doctor.
Unexplained spotting persists for more than three months.
If it is accompanied by fever or pelvic pain.
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